Hypertension is a prevalent condition where the pressure of blood on the vessel wall is higher than what it should be. This increases the load on your heart and blood vessels. It can also cause complications such as heart and kidney disorders if left unattended.

Fortunately, lowering blood pressure can reduce this risk. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and being active can prevent and manage hypertension. If you cannot control your blood pressure under normal levels with lifestyle modifications, your doctor may prescribe medication to lower it.

Candesartan is a commonly used medication that is used alone or with other drugs to manage blood pressure. It can also help to lower your risk of heart failure.

In this article, you will understand more about hypertension, its causes, how Candesartan can help in hypertension, how to use it, and other precautions to be followed.

What Is Considered as High Blood Pressure? 

Your blood pressure has two readings. The normal range for blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Your doctor will diagnose hypertension if your upper level is ≥130 mmHg and/or lower reading is ≥80 mmHg.

According to Hypertension Canada, medications are used to manage high blood pressure used in the following cases:

  • The upper level of ≥160 mmHg and/or lower level of ≥100 mmHg in individuals without risk factors (mentioned below) for vital organ damage or cardiovascular disorders.
  • The upper level of ≥140 mmHg and/or lower level of ≥90 mmHg in individuals with risk factors for vital organ damage or cardiovascular disorders.

Risk factors for hypertension associated conditions include:

  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Long-term kidney disorders
  • History of heart attack
  • Family history of heart disorders
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Higher-than-normal body weight

So, based on the factors mentioned above, your doctor might decide to put you on medications.

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

There are two main types of hypertension:

  • Primary or essential hypertension: For this type of high blood pressure, there is no identifiable cause and develops gradually over many years.
  • Secondary hypertension: An underlying health condition is a cause for this type of high blood pressure. It tends to occur suddenly and likely to cause higher blood pressure than essential hypertension.
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Hypertension Causes

As mentioned before, essential hypertension occurs without a cause. Certain disorders that can cause secondary hypertension are:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Thyroid disorders
  • Kidney disorders
  • Congenital heart disorders
  • Endocrine tumors
  • Adrenal gland disorders
  • Alcohol chronic use or abuse
  • Medications

How Does Candesartan Treat High Blood Pressure?

Candesartan belongs to the class of drugs known as angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB).

Blood pressure depends on the resistance to blood when it flows to your arteries and the effort put by your heart to pump the blood to other body parts. So, narrowing of arteries is one of the causes of high blood pressure.

Angiotensin II, a chemical formed in your blood, when attached to its receptors on muscles around your blood vessels, contracting the muscles. This causes your blood vessels to narrow, increasing the pressure within them.

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent this action by blocking angiotensin II from binding to its receptors on the muscles surrounding the blood vessels. All this relaxes your blood vessels, lowering blood pressure.

This decrease in blood pressure also lowers the load on your heart, reducing the risk of heart complications. It also lowers the risk of other complications such as diabetes and kidney failure.

Use and Dosage

Read the patient information leaflet carefully before taking this medicine. Take Candesartan as advised by your doctor. Generally, it is best to follow the mentioned precautions:

  • Take medicine as prescribed by your doctor.
  • Do not stop taking medicine without consulting your physician. Your condition may get worse and increase the risk of complications such as stroke and heart attack.
  • If you forget the dose, take it as soon as you remember it the same day and carry on as usual from the next day.
  • If you completely forget the dose for the whole day, skip it and carry on, as usual, the next day.
  • Do not take double the dose to compensate for the missed dose.
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Dose

Your doctor will decide the ideal dose based on various factors, such as:

  • Age
  • Blood pressure readings
  • Health disorders
  • Medications you may be taking

Adults

The standard dose is 16 mg to be taken once a day. It could range between 8-32 mg in a single or divided dose.

Children (ages 6 to 17 years)

The standard dose is 4–8 mg per day for kids weighing less than 50kg. It may range between 2–16 mg a day.

The dose is 8–16 mg per day for kids weighing more than 50 kgs. It may range between 4–32 mg a day.

The dose can be taken as a single dose or twice a day in divided doses.

Children (ages 1 to 5 years)

The standard dose is 0.05–0.4 mg/kg of body weight per day or about 0.20 mg/kg per day.

The dose can be taken as a single dose or twice a day in divided doses. 

Other Precautions or Lifestyle Changes While Taking Medication

It is also a good idea to know about the side effects and precautions to be followed while taking Candesartan.

Side Effects of This Medicine

As with every medication, Candesartan may also have some side effects in specific individuals.

Common

  • Dizziness
  • Back pain
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion
  • Cold symptoms such as cough, fever, sneezing, and runny nose

Uncommon

  • Sneezing
  • Head congestion
  • Ear pain or congestion
  • Stuffy or runny nose

Rare

  • Bleeding gums
  • Chest heaviness or tightness
  • Cough
  • Fainting
  • Dizziness
  • Chills
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Joint pain
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Fever
  • Back, arm, or jaw pain
  • Lightheadedness
  • Side or lower back pain
  • Nosebleeds
  • Painful or difficult urination
  • Sweating
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Discomfort or pain in the jaw, arms, neck, or back
  • Swelling of lower legs or feet
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Very Rare

  • Black or dark stools
  • Coma
  • Convulsions
  • Decreased urine output
  • Headache
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Light-colored stools
  • Nervousness
  • Pale skin
  • Skin rash
  • Bloody urine
  • Confusion
  • Dark urine
  • Difficult or troubled breathing
  • A general feeling of tiredness or weakness
  • Hives or welts
  • Increased thirst
  • Itching
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Yellow skin or eyes
  • Unusual bruising or bleeding
  • Ulcers, sores, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips
  • Unusual bruising or bleeding
  • Swelling of ankles, face, or hands

Visit the doctor if you get any side effects, and it holds even for those side-effects not mentioned here.

However, if you get the following side effects, you should visit your doctor immediately:

  • Swelling of face, eyes, or lips
  • Sudden chest pain, breathing difficulty, or wheeziness
  • Swelling of the tongue
  • Severe skin allergy including hives, skin rash, intense itching, and peeling of the skin
  • Abnormal heartbeats

Precautions

You should avoid this medication if you have the following conditions or are on certain medications unless suggested by your doctor.

You should not take Candesartan if you have the following conditions:

  • Low blood pressure 
  • Allergy to Candesartan or any of its ingredients
  • Diabetes
  • Severe kidney or liver disorders
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Fluid imbalances

You should also avoid taking Candesartan if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. 

Medications that may interfere with the functioning of Candesartan are:

  • Captopril
  • Enalaprilat
  • Fosinopril
  • Lithium
  • Perindopril
  • Quinapril
  • Trandolapril
  • Trimethoprim
  • Bufexamac
  • Choline Salicylate
  • Dexibuprofen
  • Diclofenac
  • Diflunisal
  • Droxicam
  • Etodolac
  • Etoricoxib
  • Fenoprofen
  • Feprazone
  • Flufenamic acid
  • Flurbiprofen
  • Ibuprofen
  • Indomethacin
  • Ketorolac
  • Loxoprofen
  • Lumiracoxib
  • Meclofenamate
  • Meloxicam
  • Morniflumate
  • Naproxen
  • Nepafenac
  • Nimesulide
  • Oxaprozin
  • Oxyphenbutazone
  • Phenylbutazone
  • Piketoprofen
  • Proglumetacin
  • Propyphenazone
  • Proquazone
  • Salicylic Acid
  • Sodium Salicylate
  • Tenoxicam
  • Tolfenamic Acid
  • Tolmetin

Lifestyle Changes

Medicines, including Candesartan, work more effectively when taken along with lifestyle modifications.

Some beneficial lifestyle changes include:

  • Consume a healthy diet comprising of lean proteins, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains
  • Maintaining normal weight
  • Be physically active
  • Get enough sleep
  • Stop smoking
  • Avoid excess consumption of alcohol
  • Indulge in stress lowering techniques, including yoga, deep breathing, and meditation
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